The penis can be affected by a variety of conditions. Some are due to pathologies in the structures constituting penis.
Many conditions are due to congenital anatomical variations of the Penis.
Infection, tumors and psychological conditions are other causes.
Conditions affecting the penis are discussed below
Penile agenesis is a condition where the penis is not formed. It happens due to the failure of the genital tubercle and occurs approximately in one in 1 in 30 million people.
The phallus is completely absent [including the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum].
Some children are said to have a small portion of corpora cavernosa. The urethra opens at any point of the perineal midline from over the pubis to the anus. The rectal opening has also been reported.
It is also called diphallia and is another rare anomaly that results from incomplete fusion of the genital tubercle.
Four types have been reported.
- Associated with bladder-exstrophy
- Bifid penis consisting of two separated corpora
- Two separate hemiglans.
- Extremely rare congenital condition
- Complete duplication of penis
- Partial duplication anomalies
It is also called micropenis. The penis is formed normally but is abnormally short.
The specific definition term applies to a penis with a stretched length more than 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean for age.
The penile torsion is a rotational abnormality of the penis.
A web or fold of scrotal skin obscures the penoscrotal angle
Also called hidden or concealed penis, the penile shaft is buried below the surface of the prepubic skin.
It usually happens in obese persons but may also occur due to
o Poor anchorage of penile skin to deep fascia
o The shaft of the penis is entrapped in scarred prepubic skin
o Extreme circumcision
It is an inflammatory condition that is characterized by the formation of fibrous, nodules within the tunica albuginea.
Repeated tunical mechanical stress and microvascular trauma are thought to be the causes.
Failure to get an erection is called erectile dysfunction. It may be from a psychogenic or organic component.
The process of erection is a neurovascular event, requiring functioning cavernous nerves, arteries, and veins. Affection at any level can lead to erectile dysfunction.
It refers to the inability to move the retracted foreskin forward over the glans and often occurs due to swelling of glans resulting from fluid trapped in a foreskin left retracted, often following a medical procedure.
It can also occur due to the accumulation of fluid in the foreskin because of friction during vigorous sexual activity.
It can during periods of frequent and prolonged sexual activity, especially fellatio. It is usually self-limiting.
Bacterial infections or infections due to other pathogens may affect any part of the penis a. Sexually transmitted diseases often have characteristic penile involvement.
It is a misnomer and refers to an injury of the penis when it is excessively bent and causes popping or cracking.
It requires emergency medical attention.
It is a painful and potentially harmful medical condition in which the erect penis does not return to its flaccid state. Priapism lasting over four hours is a medical emergency.
Potential complications include ischaemia, thrombosis, and impotence
is a hardened lymph vessel and a benign physical condition. It is fairly common and can follow a particularly vigorous sexual activity for men, and tends to go away if given rest and more gentle care, for example by use of lubricants.
Malignancy of the penis
Carcinoma of the penis is rare.
- A developmental disorder
- The meatus is positioned on the ventral aspect of the penis
- Can be corrected by surgery.
Penis panic [Koro]
- It is a delusion of shrinkage of the penis and retraction into the body.
- Largely limited to Ghana, Sudan, Southeast Asia, and West Africa.
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