These are medicines that break down clots. They are required for patients with more severe DVT or pulmonary embolism who need immediate medical care.

Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) is a commonly used thrombolytic drug. It is administered through a small catheter or tube, directly within the clot.

Excessive bleeding is a common side effect of these drugs. Hence, it is administered only in emergency situations.

Inferior vena cava filter

A tiny device is inserted into the inferior vena cava (a large vein that sends blood from the lower part of the body back to the heart). This device acts as a filter, catching and preventing the blood clots from traveling to the lungs while allowing the blood to flow normally.

Compression stocking

Compression stockings or special knee socks prevent swelling associated with deep vein thrombosis and also protect from post-thrombotic syndrome. They also prevent the pooling of blood and the tendency to clot.

To be effective, these should be worn at all times for at least 2 years.

Mechanical venous thrombectomy

This is a relatively new technique in which a deep vein clot is cut out.

It uses a catheter and a clot-removing device. Under imaging guidance, the catheter is inserted towards the clot. The clot-removing device is directed through the catheter towards the clot which then removes it using aspiration or a stent. This helps to reestablish blood flow.